Edith Louisa CAVELL (1865-1915), a British nurse who became a celebrated martyr during World War I. Born in England, Cavell began her nursing career in 1895 at a London hospital. Later she became the first matron of the Berkendael Medical Institute in Brussels. In the course of her work there, Nurse Cavell helped British, French, and Belgian soldiers escape across the Dutch Frontier. For these activities, Edith Cavell was tried as a spy by the Bermans and was executed.
Marie Sklodowoska CURIE (1867-1934). With the help of her husband, a French chemist, Pierre Curie, the couple discovered the twin of poloniumradium. Marie Curie was the only person to have received two Nobel Prizes once in 1903 and in 1911. Marie Curie founded the Paris Institute of Radium, and was appointed its director by the French government. Madam Curie became a victim of leukemia, which was caused by long periods of exposure to radiation.
Helen Adams KELLER (1880-1968), an American author and educator of the blind. From infancy, Keller was without power of speech and was also deaf and blind. With the inestimable assistance of Anne M. Sullivan, Keller learnt to read and to write by Braille; to use a typewriter; and even to speak, and eventually mastered five languages. Upon graduating with honours from Radeliffe, she began to lecture extensively on the education of the blind; and has received many honours for achievement. Helen Keller greatly furthered the work of the "Foundation of the Blind".
Elizabeth KENNY (1886-1952), the Australian nurse known for her technique of treating poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis, Kenny developed a system of therapy, which was sometimes too elaborate, too extensive and too time-consuming. However, Elizabeth Kenny did manage to draw attention to poliomyelitis as a national problem. In 1942, the "Elizabeth Kenny Institute" was founded in Minnesota, U.S.A. Sister Kenny can be regarded as the Florence Nightingale of Orthopedies.
MASON, Charlotte (Marie Shew) 1842-1923. An educationalist whose philosophy influences much on the best practice of modern primary schools. She believes in the response of all children to all living ideas presented in a literary form. Children must enjoy their lessons. The desire to know should be the only motivation. She also appreciates the importance of parental involvement to the child's confidence and progress. She founded the Parents' Union School, a correspondence school that became widespread in England. The demand for governess to implement her methods caused her to train young women and to raise their status by insisting on adequate salaries and conditions of work. These students were trained in her Ambersice home, now the Charlotte Mason College.
MORRIS, Margaret (1891-1980). A dancer was born in London. She had no formal academic education but went to dancing classes where she soon rebelled against classical ballet and composed exercises of her own. She adapted the six classical Greek dance positions as the basis of her own system of movement. In 1915 she started the Margaret Morris Club which became a center for discussion and the presentation of creative ideas. She extended her exercises into sports training, remedial movement for the handicapped and school education. Her overall influence was immense on modern practice of physical education, on remedial work and in choreographic innovation.